In this paper we propose the design and the fabrication of 90° bend ridge waveguide (WG) assisted by a two-dimensional photonic crystal (2D-PC). 2D-PCs act as efficient mirrors along the boundaries of the bend ridge thus reducing the in-plane losses. The ridge waveguide consists of a 3 μm x 0.75 μm titanium dioxide core on a silica bottom cladding. The 2D-PC structure surrounding the bend waveguide is composed of a triangular array of circular dielectric pillars having a height of 0.75 μm. The titanium dioxide waveguiding core layer is covered with PMMA in order to create a quasi-symmetric structure. A photonic band gap centered around 1.3 μm is obtained by a PC radius r = 0.33a and lattice period a = 0.450 μm. The design of the whole structure is subsequently optimized by using a 3D Finite Difference Time Domain based computer code. The ridge waveguide assisted by a 2D-PC has been fabricated by using electron beam lithography and reactive ion etching. For the pattern transfer we have used about 50 nm thin layer Cr metal etch mask obtained by means of a lift-off technique based on the use of bi-layer resist (PMMA/MMA). The presence of the 2D-PC around the bend waveguide leads to a sharp increase of the transmission efficiency around 1.3 μm for curvature radius of 2.5 μm. The bend transmission results to be in the range between 0.76 and 0.85 when the thickness of the ridge WG and of the 2D-PC pillars is between 0.75 and 1.3 μm. This value is more than twice with respect to the bend waveguide without 2D-PC.
|Titolo:||Fabrication of high efficiency compact 90° bend waveguide by using a dielectric 2D-PC structure|
|Titolo del libro:||Photonic Materials, Devices, and Applications|
|Editore:||Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2005|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1117/12.608376|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||2.1 Contributo in volume (Capitolo o Saggio)|