Small scale Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plants present lower electric efficiency in comparison to large scale ones, and this is particularly valid when biomass fuels are used. In most cases, the use of both heat and electricity to serve on site energy demand is a key to achieve acceptable global energy efficiency and investment profitability. However, the heat demand follows a typical daily and seasonal pattern and it is influenced by climatic conditions. During low heat demand periods, a lot of heat produced by the CHP plant is discharged. In order to increase the electric conversion efficiency of small scale biomass CHP plants, a bottoming ORC system can be coupled to the cycle, however this decreases the temperature and quantity of cogenerated heat available to the load. In this perspective, the paper proposes a thermo-economic analysis of small scale CHP plants based on steam turbine (ST) or externally fired micro gas turbine (EFGT) coupled to different typologies of bottoming Organic Rankine Cycles (ORC). The research assesses the influence of the thermal energy demand and CHP plant operational strategies on the global energy efficiency and profitability of the proposed cogeneration options, taking into account the part load efficiency and the heat to electricity ratio flexibility that could be achieved through a switch on-off of the bottoming ORC. The thermodynamic cycles and their part load efficiency are modeled by Gate-Cycle (Brayton cycles) and Cycle-Tempo (Rankine cycles). The research explores the profitability of bottoming ORC in view of the higher efficiency and electricity generation revenues but higher costs and reduced heat available for cogeneration in the case of bottoming ORC. The results indicate the optimal CHP technology and configuration for each energy demand segment and the relative key technical and economic factors in the Italian legislative framework.
|Titolo:||Small scale biomass CHP: Techno-economic performance of steam vs gas turbines with bottoming ORC|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2015|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1016/j.egypro.2015.11.819|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|