The phisical of the city: the relationship between from and bulding. Preservation and recovery of housing in historical centers and particular the duble – cistern bulding type found in Corato (Bari) Study and preservation of historical centers. The research concentrates on the complex problem found in the historical-archeological study of stratificated sites still in use, and generally defined as urban or territorial archeology, which demand attention and must be considered in an equal manner to those places which are no longer innabited. That which becomes important is the concept. That archeology can be considered as the basis of historic and building knowledge. The analysis is carried out in terms of sface and time, and refers not only to historical processes (permanent phenomenons) but aslo to chronological processes (confirmable urban deeds) Housing in historical centers, bouble-cistern building types. The research can be read on an urban scale in order to understand the exsting fabbric and on a smaller scale concetrating on unique and diversified building types (a derivative of tipological understanding). The latter will take into particular consideration the architectural forms, structural influences technological understanding, constructional knowledge and the use of local materials. These aspects of the research concentrates on the right use of buldind techiniques and the verification of the type-morfological area specifically found in the both the environmrnt and the building form in the territory of Apulia and more specifically in the town of Corato. Study case: the collapse of Corato The urban fabric under exam is primarily made up of basic housing units: complex row housing. The research takes into consideration this housing where, apart from the floors found above ground, one can also find the exsistance of two hipogeum. While these two levels are similar in form and structure, both whit the same dimensions as the upper floors and both with vaulted ceilings, they each have different fuctions. The basement level was used as a storage area for the conservation of food goods while the hypogeum was used aa cisterna which accumulated and stored rainwater through the use of a complex drainage system which gathered it fron the roof. Along with the cistern, very open one can find a well which was feed by underground water sources connected to the water table. The wallas of the well lunch arrive to the water table, divide the subsoil and create a type of checxer board. Above this system of vaulted spaces, one can find one floor plus an attic. The primary vertical strcture is fermed by a bouble-faced masonry wall which has a central nucleus made up of earth and local limestone mixed with lime mortar. The horizontal structure is composed of wood beams perpendicular to the longitudinal structure walls. The whole strctural system is concepted as a machine for the gethering of water: the pitch roof with its inclination towards the interior, gathers rain water in a sort of hidden cavity and collects it in the cisterns found below. The collapse of Corato. It was exactly this seemingly perfect system which caused the so-called “disaster of Corato”. Through continuous modifications in this system which provided water coupled whit the construction of the cisterns, the foudations of much of the housing were flooded, thus causing, between 1916 and 1922, numerous collapses.

La forma fisica della città: rapporto tra forma e costruzione. Tutela e recupero della casa di abitazione in ambito storico, il tipo edilizio a doppia cisterna a Corato (Ba) Studio e tutela dei centri storici La ricerca si inserisce nell’ambito della complessa problematica dello studio storico- archeologico dei siti stratificati ancora in uso, oggi definiti genericamente come archeologia urbana, archeologia del territorio, che impongono una attenzione e un impegno ad essere considerati al pari delle sedi oramai non più abitate. Considerare il concetto di archeologia come fonte di conoscenza storica e costruttiva. L’analisi è condotta in termini di spazio e di tempo, e si riferisce ai processi storici (fenomeni permanenti) e a quelli cronologici (fatti urbani riscontrabili) (Trani, Molfetta, Corato,). La casa di abitazione in ambito storico, il tipo edilizio a doppia cisterna. La lettura a scala urbana per la comprensione del tessuto esistente e alla scala edilizia (derivante dalla lettura tipologica) uniche e diversificate caso per caso. Quest’ultima si rivolgerà particolarmente all’indagine delle forme, delle strutture, degli accorgimenti tecnologici, delle caratteristiche costruttive, dell’uso e dell’impiego dei materiali. Questa dimensione della ricerca coinvolge le problematiche della appropriatezza tecnica e la verifica degli ambiti tipo-morfologici conformi alle qualità ambientali e formali del costruito nel territorio della Puglia e più specificatamente della città di Corato. Il caso studio: i crolli di Corato Il tessuto in esame è fondamentalmente costituito da edilizia di base: la casa a schiera matura. Ai piani di elevazione si aggiungono un livello seminterrato e uno ipogeo. Questi due livelli sono simili per forma e struttura, voltati della stessa dimensione dei piani superiori, il seminterrato utilizzato come cantina e per la conservazione degli alimenti, quello ipogeo con funzione di cisterna per la raccolta dell’acqua piovana che attraverso un sistema di canalizzazioni raccoglieva acqua dal tetto. Alla cisterna spesso si aggiungeva il pozzo alimentato dalle acque dello strato acquifero, le cui pareti raggiungono lo strato argilloso dividendo il sottosuolo e determinando un disegno a scacchiera minuta dello stesso. Al sistema voltato delle cisterne segue un primo e un secondo piano sottotetto. La struttura muraria primaria e realizzata a sacco con nucleo centrale composto di malta di calce mescolato a terra, e la pietra calcarea “calcarenite delle Murge”. Gli orizzontamenti sono lignei tessuti ortogonalmente ai muri longitudinali portanti. L’intero sistema è concepito come una macchina per la raccolta dell’acqua: sui tetti a falde con pendenza all’interno dove una sorta di intercapedine convoglia le acque meteoriche per poi portarle nelle sottostante cisterne. I crolli di Corato. Proprio questo perfetto sistema si è poi rivelato la causa del cosiddetto “disastro di Corato”, che con la modifica del sistema di approvvigionamento, costruzione dell’acquedotto e il conseguente abbandono delle cisterna ha provocato allagamento delle fondazioni che tra il 1916 e il 1922 provocano numerosi crolli di edifici.

Town morphology the relationship between form and building. Preservation and recovery of dwelling houses in historical centres and in particular the double-reservoir bulding type of Corato (Bari)

FICARELLI, Loredana
2006

Abstract

The phisical of the city: the relationship between from and bulding. Preservation and recovery of housing in historical centers and particular the duble – cistern bulding type found in Corato (Bari) Study and preservation of historical centers. The research concentrates on the complex problem found in the historical-archeological study of stratificated sites still in use, and generally defined as urban or territorial archeology, which demand attention and must be considered in an equal manner to those places which are no longer innabited. That which becomes important is the concept. That archeology can be considered as the basis of historic and building knowledge. The analysis is carried out in terms of sface and time, and refers not only to historical processes (permanent phenomenons) but aslo to chronological processes (confirmable urban deeds) Housing in historical centers, bouble-cistern building types. The research can be read on an urban scale in order to understand the exsting fabbric and on a smaller scale concetrating on unique and diversified building types (a derivative of tipological understanding). The latter will take into particular consideration the architectural forms, structural influences technological understanding, constructional knowledge and the use of local materials. These aspects of the research concentrates on the right use of buldind techiniques and the verification of the type-morfological area specifically found in the both the environmrnt and the building form in the territory of Apulia and more specifically in the town of Corato. Study case: the collapse of Corato The urban fabric under exam is primarily made up of basic housing units: complex row housing. The research takes into consideration this housing where, apart from the floors found above ground, one can also find the exsistance of two hipogeum. While these two levels are similar in form and structure, both whit the same dimensions as the upper floors and both with vaulted ceilings, they each have different fuctions. The basement level was used as a storage area for the conservation of food goods while the hypogeum was used aa cisterna which accumulated and stored rainwater through the use of a complex drainage system which gathered it fron the roof. Along with the cistern, very open one can find a well which was feed by underground water sources connected to the water table. The wallas of the well lunch arrive to the water table, divide the subsoil and create a type of checxer board. Above this system of vaulted spaces, one can find one floor plus an attic. The primary vertical strcture is fermed by a bouble-faced masonry wall which has a central nucleus made up of earth and local limestone mixed with lime mortar. The horizontal structure is composed of wood beams perpendicular to the longitudinal structure walls. The whole strctural system is concepted as a machine for the gethering of water: the pitch roof with its inclination towards the interior, gathers rain water in a sort of hidden cavity and collects it in the cisterns found below. The collapse of Corato. It was exactly this seemingly perfect system which caused the so-called “disaster of Corato”. Through continuous modifications in this system which provided water coupled whit the construction of the cisterns, the foudations of much of the housing were flooded, thus causing, between 1916 and 1922, numerous collapses.
Contruction History
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11589/14614
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