Evaporative cycles, such as Recuperated Water lnjected (RWI) cycle, Humid Air Turbine (HAT) cycle, Cascaded Humidified Advanced Turbine (CHAT) offer the attractive possibility to increase plant efficiency without the use of a steam turbine, necessary for gas-steam combined cycles, appearing, therefore, as an interesting solution for industrial power applications such as electric utilities and independent power producers. It is expected that water addition may contribute to reduce NOx emissions in premixed flame combustors. In order to analyse this solution, a lean-bum combustor, fed with an homogeneous mixture formed by methane and humid air, has been analysed through CFD simulations, in order to predict velocity field, temperatures and emissions. The study has been carried out under the hypothesis of a two-dimensional, axisymmetric combustion chamber assuming, as set of operation conditions, atmospheric pressure, inlet temperature of 650 K, fuel-air equivalence ratio of the methane-air mixture ranging from 0.5 to 0.7 and water-air mass ratio varying from 0% to 5%. In the simulation, the presence of turbulence in the flow has been taken into account using a RNG k-ε model, whilst the chemical behaviour of the system has been described by means of a five-step global reduced mechanism including the oxidation mechanism and the NOx formation mechanism. The analysis of the results shows that the moisture in the premixed flow reduces both NOx and CO emissions at constant equivalence ratio; moreover the lean blow-out limit is shifted toward higher equivalence ratio. The main effect of the water seems to be the increase of the specific heat the mixture which causes a reduction in flame temperature, slowing the chemical reactions responsible of NOx formation. The reasonable agreement has been found between the simulation results concerning NOx emissions and recent experimental results carried out on premixed flamed with humid air. A discussion is also provided about the adopted turbulence models and their influence on the emission results.

CFD Simulation of Humid Air Premixed Flame Combustion Chamber for Evaporative Gas Turbine Cycles

S. M. Camporeale;B. Fortunato
2001

Abstract

Evaporative cycles, such as Recuperated Water lnjected (RWI) cycle, Humid Air Turbine (HAT) cycle, Cascaded Humidified Advanced Turbine (CHAT) offer the attractive possibility to increase plant efficiency without the use of a steam turbine, necessary for gas-steam combined cycles, appearing, therefore, as an interesting solution for industrial power applications such as electric utilities and independent power producers. It is expected that water addition may contribute to reduce NOx emissions in premixed flame combustors. In order to analyse this solution, a lean-bum combustor, fed with an homogeneous mixture formed by methane and humid air, has been analysed through CFD simulations, in order to predict velocity field, temperatures and emissions. The study has been carried out under the hypothesis of a two-dimensional, axisymmetric combustion chamber assuming, as set of operation conditions, atmospheric pressure, inlet temperature of 650 K, fuel-air equivalence ratio of the methane-air mixture ranging from 0.5 to 0.7 and water-air mass ratio varying from 0% to 5%. In the simulation, the presence of turbulence in the flow has been taken into account using a RNG k-ε model, whilst the chemical behaviour of the system has been described by means of a five-step global reduced mechanism including the oxidation mechanism and the NOx formation mechanism. The analysis of the results shows that the moisture in the premixed flow reduces both NOx and CO emissions at constant equivalence ratio; moreover the lean blow-out limit is shifted toward higher equivalence ratio. The main effect of the water seems to be the increase of the specific heat the mixture which causes a reduction in flame temperature, slowing the chemical reactions responsible of NOx formation. The reasonable agreement has been found between the simulation results concerning NOx emissions and recent experimental results carried out on premixed flamed with humid air. A discussion is also provided about the adopted turbulence models and their influence on the emission results.
Power for Land, Sea, and Air: ASME Turbo Expo 2001
978-0-7918-7851-4
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11589/15108
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