In electrical grids, fault diagnosis (fault type and fault location classifications) are critical due to their economic and important implications. Numerous smart grid applications have embraced data-driven methodologies. While the majority of the work in this topic has been on increasing the predicted accuracy of machine-learning model for fault diagnosis, one important aspect that has received less attention is the interpretability of these systems. We advocate for a complementary perspective. To represent faulty signals, we propose a spectrogram–convolutional neural network based representation of the electrical signals where pre-trained models such as GoogleNet and SqueezeNet are trivially used. We then perform multiple fault classification tasks and offer a visual interpretation of the collected findings. The suggested approach makes the model more transparent through the use of Gradient-weighted Class Activation Mapping (Grad-CAM), which visualizes regions in the input spectrogram that are more relevant for predictions, assisting the end-user in the understanding and interpreting the results. We explore the merits of the suggested technique in terms of increasing the transparency of the black-box machine learning system, which is a critical requirement for designing modernized smart grids.

Visual inspection of fault type and zone prediction in electrical grids using interpretable spectrogram-based CNN modeling

Ardito Carmelo;Deldjoo Yashar;Di Noia Tommaso;Di Sciascio Eugenio;Nazary Fatemeh
2022

Abstract

In electrical grids, fault diagnosis (fault type and fault location classifications) are critical due to their economic and important implications. Numerous smart grid applications have embraced data-driven methodologies. While the majority of the work in this topic has been on increasing the predicted accuracy of machine-learning model for fault diagnosis, one important aspect that has received less attention is the interpretability of these systems. We advocate for a complementary perspective. To represent faulty signals, we propose a spectrogram–convolutional neural network based representation of the electrical signals where pre-trained models such as GoogleNet and SqueezeNet are trivially used. We then perform multiple fault classification tasks and offer a visual interpretation of the collected findings. The suggested approach makes the model more transparent through the use of Gradient-weighted Class Activation Mapping (Grad-CAM), which visualizes regions in the input spectrogram that are more relevant for predictions, assisting the end-user in the understanding and interpreting the results. We explore the merits of the suggested technique in terms of increasing the transparency of the black-box machine learning system, which is a critical requirement for designing modernized smart grids.
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11589/243823
 Attenzione

Attenzione! I dati visualizzati non sono stati sottoposti a validazione da parte dell'ateneo

Citazioni
  • Scopus 1
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? ND
social impact