In this work, nonlinear variational optimization is used for obtaining minimal seeds for the formation of turbulent bands in channel flow. Using nonlinear optimization together with energy bisection, we have found that the minimal energy threshold for obtaining spatially patterned turbulence scales with Formula Presented for Formula Presented. The minimal seed, which is different to that found in a much smaller domain, is characterized by a spot-like structure surrounded by a low-amplitude large-scale quadrupolar flow filling the whole domain. This minimal-energy perturbation of the laminar flow has dominant wavelengths close to Formula Presented in the streamwise direction and Formula Presented in the spanwise direction, and is characterized by a spatial localization increasing with the Reynolds number. At Formula Presented, the minimal seed evolves in time, creating an isolated oblique band, whereas for Formula Presented, a quasi-spanwise-symmetric evolution is observed, giving rise to two distinct bands. A similar evolution is found also at low Formula Presented for non-minimal optimal perturbations. This highlights two different mechanisms of formation of turbulent bands in channel flow, depending on the Reynolds number and initial energy of the perturbation. The selection of one of these two mechanisms appears to be dependent on the probability of decay of the newly created stripe, which increases with time, but decreases with the Reynolds number.

Minimal energy thresholds for sustained turbulent bands in channel flow

Parente E.;De Palma P.;Cherubini S.
2022

Abstract

In this work, nonlinear variational optimization is used for obtaining minimal seeds for the formation of turbulent bands in channel flow. Using nonlinear optimization together with energy bisection, we have found that the minimal energy threshold for obtaining spatially patterned turbulence scales with Formula Presented for Formula Presented. The minimal seed, which is different to that found in a much smaller domain, is characterized by a spot-like structure surrounded by a low-amplitude large-scale quadrupolar flow filling the whole domain. This minimal-energy perturbation of the laminar flow has dominant wavelengths close to Formula Presented in the streamwise direction and Formula Presented in the spanwise direction, and is characterized by a spatial localization increasing with the Reynolds number. At Formula Presented, the minimal seed evolves in time, creating an isolated oblique band, whereas for Formula Presented, a quasi-spanwise-symmetric evolution is observed, giving rise to two distinct bands. A similar evolution is found also at low Formula Presented for non-minimal optimal perturbations. This highlights two different mechanisms of formation of turbulent bands in channel flow, depending on the Reynolds number and initial energy of the perturbation. The selection of one of these two mechanisms appears to be dependent on the probability of decay of the newly created stripe, which increases with time, but decreases with the Reynolds number.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11589/244683
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