This study investigated the accumulation and removal of Cu, Ni and Zn in two horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands for domestic wastewater treatment, which differ by shape, presence of macrophytes and water depth. Between March and December 2007, the three metals were measured in the influent and effluents of the two systems. Average percentage removal rates were extremely low for Cu (3% and 9% in the two beds) and higher for Zn and Ni (between 25 and 35%). Under higher Zn influent concentrations, it was found to be between 78-87%, which is in agreement with other literature data. During the peak standing crop season (August), biomasses of the different parts of Phragmites australis (stems, leaves and flowers, roots and rhizomes) were analysed in terms of weight and heavy metal concentration in order to assess heavy metal distribution among the tissues. It was found that the plants contribute to total heavy metal removal to a lesser extent than the filling medium. Aboveground tissues remove 34% of Cu, 1.8% of Ni and 6.2% of Zn % and, once harvested, their disposal does not appear to pose a problem for the environment. If heavy metals are present at high concentrations in the horizontal subsurface flow bed influent, over time, their accumulation in the filling medium could necessitate special care in the bed's management to avoid release into the surrounding environment.
|Titolo:||Removal and accumulation of Cu, Ni and Zn in horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands: Contribution of vegetation and filling medium|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2010|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1016/j.scitotenv.2010.07.045|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|