Objectives: The article describes a new methodology to scan and integrate facial soft tissue surface with dental hard tissue models in a three-dimensional (3D) virtual environment, for a novel diagnostic approach. The facial and the dental scans can be acquired using any optical scanning systems: the models are then aligned and integrated to obtain a full virtual navigable representation of the head of the patient. Methods: In this article, we report in detail and further implemented a method for integrating 3D digital cast models into a 3D facial image, to visualize the anatomic position of the dentition. This system uses several 3D technologies to scan and digitize, integrating them with traditional dentistry records. The acquisitions were mainly performed using photogrammetric scanners, suitable for clinics or hospitals, able to obtain high mesh resolution and optimal surface texture for the photorealistic rendering of the face. To increase the quality and the resolution of the photogrammetric scanning of the dental elements, the authors propose a new technique to enhance the texture of the dental surface. Results: Three examples of the application of the proposed procedure are reported in this article, using first laser scanning and photogrammetry and then only photogrammetry. Using cheek retractors, it is possible to scan directly a great number of dental elements. The final results are good navigable 3D models that integrate facial soft tissue and dental hard tissues. The method is characterized by the complete absence of ionizing radiation, portability and simplicity, fast acquisition, easy alignment of the 3D models, and wide angle of view of the scanner. Conclusions: This method is completely noninvasive and can be repeated any time the physician needs new clinical records. The 3D virtual model is a precise representation both of the soft and the hard tissue scanned, and it is possible to make any dimensional measure directly in the virtual space, for a full integrated 3D anthropometry and cephalometry. Moreover, the authors propose a method completely based on close-range photogrammetric scanning, able to detect facial and dental surfaces, and reducing the time, the complexity, and the cost of the scanning operations and the numerical elaboration.

Noninvasive Computerized Scanning Method for the Correlation Between the Facial Soft and Hard Tissues for an Integrated Three-Dimensional Anthropometry and Cephalometry

GALANTUCCI, Luigi Maria;PERCOCO, Gianluca;LAVECCHIA, Fulvio;
2013-01-01

Abstract

Objectives: The article describes a new methodology to scan and integrate facial soft tissue surface with dental hard tissue models in a three-dimensional (3D) virtual environment, for a novel diagnostic approach. The facial and the dental scans can be acquired using any optical scanning systems: the models are then aligned and integrated to obtain a full virtual navigable representation of the head of the patient. Methods: In this article, we report in detail and further implemented a method for integrating 3D digital cast models into a 3D facial image, to visualize the anatomic position of the dentition. This system uses several 3D technologies to scan and digitize, integrating them with traditional dentistry records. The acquisitions were mainly performed using photogrammetric scanners, suitable for clinics or hospitals, able to obtain high mesh resolution and optimal surface texture for the photorealistic rendering of the face. To increase the quality and the resolution of the photogrammetric scanning of the dental elements, the authors propose a new technique to enhance the texture of the dental surface. Results: Three examples of the application of the proposed procedure are reported in this article, using first laser scanning and photogrammetry and then only photogrammetry. Using cheek retractors, it is possible to scan directly a great number of dental elements. The final results are good navigable 3D models that integrate facial soft tissue and dental hard tissues. The method is characterized by the complete absence of ionizing radiation, portability and simplicity, fast acquisition, easy alignment of the 3D models, and wide angle of view of the scanner. Conclusions: This method is completely noninvasive and can be repeated any time the physician needs new clinical records. The 3D virtual model is a precise representation both of the soft and the hard tissue scanned, and it is possible to make any dimensional measure directly in the virtual space, for a full integrated 3D anthropometry and cephalometry. Moreover, the authors propose a method completely based on close-range photogrammetric scanning, able to detect facial and dental surfaces, and reducing the time, the complexity, and the cost of the scanning operations and the numerical elaboration.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11589/52353
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